Tsib Txoj Kev Ntawm Melting Titanium Alloys

Cov txheej txheem melting ntawm titanium alloy feem ntau muab faib ua: 1. Lub tshuab nqus hluav taws xob nqus cov khoom siv roj khov melting txoj kev; 2. Kev siv lub tshuab nqus hluav taws xob tsis siv neeg lub tshuab nqus roj; 3. Txias hearth melting qauv; 4. Cov lauj kaub txias melting txoj kev; 5. Tsib tsib txoj kev ntawm electroslag smelting.


1. Lub tshuab nqus hluav taws xob arc rauv melting txoj kev (VAR txoj kev)

Nrog rau kev txhim kho lub tshuab nqus tsev thiab kev siv computer, VAR txoj kev tau sai dhau los ua ib qho kev paub tab ntawm kev siv tshuab ua haujlwm ntawm titanium. Cov yam ntxwv tsis zoo ntawm cov qauv VAR yog kev siv hluav taws xob tsawg, kev siab ceev melting thiab zoo zoo reproducibility. Feem ntau, cov khoom tiav tiav yuav tsum tau yaj los ntawm VAR txoj kev thiab rov qab tsawg dua ob zaug. VAR txoj kev yog siv los tsim cov titanium ingot. Cov txheej txheem siv los ntawm cov tuam ntxhab thoob ntiaj teb yog qhov zoo sib xws. Qhov sib txawv yog tias txawv cov txheej txheem electrode npaj thiab khoom siv yog siv. Kev npaj hluav taws xob tuaj yeem muab faib ua peb yam. Thawj yog los txais yuav cov roj hmab sib xyaw txuas ntxiv uas tau txuas ntxiv los ntawm qhov chaw pub mis, tsis suav nrog cov txheej txheem electrode vuam; qhov thib ob yog mus nias ib qho electrode thiab weld rau hauv qhov hluav taws xob uas siv tau. Thiab dhau ntawm cov ntshav argon arc vuam lossis nqus vuam rau hauv ib qho; Thib peb, lub tshuab raj electrode tau npaj los ntawm lwm txoj hauv kev smelting.


Cov yam ntxwv kev ua tau zoo thiab qhov zoo ntawm cov khoom lag luam qib siab VAR niaj hnub:

(1) txhua qhov coaxial zog tawm tswv yim, uas yog hais, tag nrho qhov siab ntawm lub tshuab ua kom sov ntawm cov fais fab coaxial, hu ua coaxial fais fab mov, txo qhov sib txawv tshwm sim;

(2) qhov ntsuas hluav taws xob hauv qhov ntsuas tau zoo tuaj yeem kho tau hauv X / Y axis;

(3) nrog qhov tseeb electrode kev ntsuas lub cev, melting tus txheej txheem yog tswj tau, kev ceev nrawm yog pom tau hais, thiab melting zoo yog lav;

(4) xyuas kom meej qhov ua tau zoo rov qab thiab ua kom sib xws ntawm txhua lub melting;

(5) hloov tau yooj yim, uas yog, ib lub tshuab ua kom sov tuaj yeem tsim ntau hom ingot thiab loj teev ingot casting, uas tuaj yeem ua tau zoo ntau yam;

(6) kev lag luam zoo. Qhov "coaxial power supply" hom tuaj yeem zam qhov sib nqus sib nqus los ntawm qhov tsis sib txig ntawm crucible muab khoom tam sim no. Txo los sis tshem tawm qhov tsis zoo tshwm sim los ntawm kev sib nqus cov lus sib nqus ntawm cov khoom lag luam smelted. Thiab txhim kho txoj kev siv hluav taws xob kom ua tiav, txhawm rau kom tau txais cov khoom zoo ruaj khov. Lub hom phiaj ntawm "tas mus li ceev melting" yog txhawm rau txhim kho qhov zoo ntawm cov ingot los ntawm kev ua kom qhov tas mus li ntawm arc ntev thiab melting tus txheej txheem nyob rau hauv cov txheej txheem melting los ntawm kev tswj hluav taws xob siab thiab cov cim hnyav, yog li tswj cov txheej txheem coagulation. Nws tuaj yeem tiv thaiv kev sib cais thiab lav tau qhov zoo ntawm sab hauv ntawm ingot.

Ntxiv rau ob qhov yam ntxwv saum toj no, niaj hnub VAR rauv taws rau titanium smelting tau pom tias muaj qhov loj-loj VAR rauv taws ua kom sov. 5m, 32t cov khoom loj.

Tus qauv VAR yog tus qauv kev lag luam melting rau cov titanium thiab titanium alloys niaj hnub. Tab sis cov hauv qab no technologies yuav tsum tau nyob:


Ua ntej, txheej txheem electrode; Cov txheej txheem kev npaj electrode yog qhov nyuaj heev, uas yuav tsum tau siv cov ntawv xov xwm kim txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau nqus cov khoom nqus, cov nplais hluav taws xob hauv nruab nrab thiab xa rov qab cov khoom seem mus rau hauv cov electrode tag nrho lossis ib qho ciaj ntswj me me. Ib qho electrode tseem yuav tsum tau welded rau hauv lub electrode siv tau. Nyob rau tib lub sijhawm, txhawm rau kom muaj kev sib raug zoo ntawm kev sib xyaw ntawm cov khoom siv hluav taws xob, nws yuav tsum muaj cov ntaub npog cov khoom, cov khoom hnyav, cov khoom sib xyaw thiab lwm qhov chaw sib haum.


Thib ob, muaj qee zaum cov teeb meem metallurgical xws li sib cais. Xws li kev sib xyaw muaj sib cais thiab kev sib cais sib cais.


Lub qub yog tshwm sim los ntawm cov tsis sib xws ntawm kev faib ua kom tsis huv los yog cov ntsiab lus sib xyaw hauv cov electrode thiab solidification tsis muaj sijhawm sib npaug faib thaum melting. Qhov kawg yog vim muaj qee zaus qhia txog ntawm cov khoom siv siab ua kom muaj siab (HDI) thiab cov khoom siv hluav taws xob tsawg (LDI) rau hauv cov khoom siv lossis cov txheej txheem. Cov kev suav no tsis tuaj yeem ua kom tiav nyob rau hauv cov txheej txheem smelting, uas ua rau nws yog xim hlau tsis xws luag xws li kev tiv thaiv tsis zoo.


2. Kev siv lub tshuab nqus hluav taws xob tsis siv neeg lub tshuab nqus hluav taws xob melting (Jane koj NC txujci)

Tam sim no, dej txias tooj liab electrode tau hloov cov theem pib ntawm tungsten titanium kev lag luam thorium platform kub hluav taws kub cam khwb cia lossis graphite hluav taws xob hluav taws xob, daws qhov teeb meem ntawm kev ua qias tuaj, uas ua rau NC txoj kev tau dhau los ua ib qho tseem ceeb ntawm melting titanium thiab titanium kub, a ob peb tons ntawm NC rauv tau ua tiav hauv Tebchaws Europe thiab Tebchaws Asmeskas.

Cov dej txias ua tooj liab electrodes tau muab faib ua ob hom: ib qho yog tus kheej tig; Lwm qhov yog kev sib nqus cov lus sib nqus, uas lub hom phiaj tiv thaiv cov arc los ntawm hlawv cov electrode.

NC rauv taws tseem tuaj yeem muab faib ua ob yam: ib qho yog hauv cov dej txias tooj liab crucible melting raw cov ntaub ntawv, hauv cov dej txias ua tooj liab ua pwm nrum rau hauv khoom noj; Lwm qhov yog txuas ntxiv nrum ntawm cov ntaub ntawv raw, melting thiab solidification hauv dej-txias tooj liab crucible.

Qhov zoo ntawm NC melting txoj kev yog: (1) tuaj yeem txuag cov nias hluav taws xob thiab vuam electrode txheej txheem; (2) tuaj yeem ua rau arc nyob ntawm cov khoom kom ntev, yog li txhawm rau txhim kho cov khaub ncaws tsis sib xws ntawm cov ntawv sib xyaw; (3) tuaj yeem siv cov duab sib txawv thiab ntau thiab tsawg ntawm cov ntaub ntawv raw, hauv cov txheej txheem smelting tseem tuaj yeem ntxiv 100% qhov seem, titanium rov ua dua tshiab.

Raws li kev tua tus kheej, NC txoj kev siv tau zoo heev los ntawm qhov pom ntawm kev txhim kho cov khoom qub thiab txo tus nqi. Feem ntau, NC rauv taws ua kom sov thiab VAR chav ua haujlwm siv los muab kev ua si tag nrho rau lawv cov kev tau zoo.


3. Khaub thuas hearth melting txoj kev (CHM txuj ci rau luv luv)

Cov xim hlau tsis zoo ntawm titanium thiab titanium alloy ingots tshwm sim los ntawm cov khoom siv cov pa phem thiab cov txheej txheem tsis haum rau lub sijhawm ib txwm muaj feem cuam tshuam rau daim ntawv thov ntawm titanium thiab titanium alloy hauv aerospace teb. Txhawm rau kom tshem tawm cov xim hlau ntau ntxiv rau hauv qhov kev sib hloov ntawm titanium alloy aircraft lub cav, txias txias hearth melting tshuab tau tsim.

Qhov loj tshaj plaws ntawm CHM txoj kev yog qhov sib cais ntawm melting, refining thiab solidification txheej txheem. Ntawd yog hais, tom qab lub nra txoj haujlwm nkag mus rau hauv lub tshuab ua kom sov hauv chav ua noj, nws yog yaj ua ntej, tom qab ntawd nkag mus rau thaj chaw ua kom txias ntawm lub txaj txias rau kev kho kom zoo, thiab thaum kawg solidifies rau hauv ingots hauv thaj chaw crystallization. Qhov txiaj ntsig tseem ceeb ntawm CHM thev naus laus zis yog tias nws tuaj yeem tsim tau lub plhaub lub zog ntawm phab ntsa ntawm lub txaj txias, thiab nws qhov chaw "thaj chaw" tuaj yeem ntes cov kev sib xyaw ua haujlwm siab (HDI) xws li WC, Mo, Ta, thiab lwm yam. ua kom zoo dua cheeb tsam, lub sijhawm raug kaw ntawm cov khoom sib txuas tsawg tsawg (LDI) cov khoom hauv cov kua kub ua kom ntev, uas tuaj yeem ua kom tiav qhov xaus ntawm LDI, yog li kom muaj txiaj ntsig tshem tawm cov tsis xws luag. Uas yog hais. Lub tshuab ua haujlwm ua kom huv ntawm txias hearth melting tuaj yeem muab faib ua qhov tshwj xeeb sib nqus thiab sib cais sib xyaw.


3.1 hluav taws xob nqaj ua hluav taws xob txias ua kom txias (EBCHM) cov hluav taws xob cov nplaim hluav taws xob yaj (EB) yog txheej txheem uas siv lub zog ntawm cov hluav taws xob muaj hluav taws xob ntau los ua kom muaj cua sov hauv cov khoom siv nws tus kheej rau smelting thiab ua kom zoo nkauj. EB rauv taws sov nrog qhov txias txias hu ua EBCHM. EBCHM muaj cov haujlwm zoo heev uas kev ua ib txwm tsis ua:

(1) zoo tshem tawm tantalum, molybdenum, tungsten, tungsten carbide thiab lwm yam kev ua haujlwm siab (HDI) thiab titanium nitride. Titanium oxide thiab lwm yam khoom ua kom tsis tshua muaj hluav taws xob (LDI);

(2) tuaj yeem lees txais ntau txoj kev pub mis, titanium qhov seem rov qab los kuj yooj yim, uas yog, tuaj yeem siv lwm txoj kev smelting tsis tuaj yeem siv cov pov tseg, tseem tuaj yeem tsim cov ntshiab titanium ingots, zoo heev txo tus nqi ntawm cov khoom;

(3) nws tuaj yeem ncaj qha los ntawm cov kua hlau rau kev soj ntsuam thiab tshuaj xyuas;

(4) tuaj yeem tsim cov ntawv billet, txo cov txheej txheem ntau lawm, txo kev siv cov khoom siv raw, txhim kho cov paib;


EBCHM tseem muaj cov kev tsis zoo hauv qab no:

(1) smelting yuav tsum tau ua raws li qhov nqus plua plav siab, yog li cov nplauv titanium nrog cov dej siab chloride tsis tuaj yeem smelted ncaj qha;

(2) cov ntsiab lus hais tsis haum thiab nyuaj los tswj cov tshuaj lom neeg.


3.2 ntshav txias tuaj yeem sib tham txog lub txaj (hom leeg PCHM)

Cov txheej txheem PCHM siv US plasma arc tsim los ntawm ionization ntawm inert gases raws li cov khoom siv cua sov, thiab tuaj yeem siv los ua kom tiav cov yaj hauv qhov siab ntau ntawm qhov nqus kom tsawg mus rau qhov ze ze huab cua. Cov yam ntxwv ntawm tus qauv no yog tias nws tuaj yeem lav qhov muaj pes tsawg leeg ntawm cov xaim nrog sib txawv ntawm cov pa siab, thiab tsis muaj lub peev xwm los txhim kho cov yam ntxwv ntawm cov tsoos alloy hauv cov txheej txheem smelting. Rau titanium thiab titanium alloys, zoo tagnrho ingot tuaj yeem tau los ntawm ib qho smelting. Qhov zoo ntawm cov qauv PCHM niaj hnub no yog:


(1) cov cuab yeej siv nqis peev yog tsawg, yooj yim rau kev khiav lag luam, nyab xeeb thiab txhim khu kev qha;


(2) tuaj yeem siv cov kev sib txawv thiab cov qauv ntawm cov ntaub ntawv raw, tus nqi seem rov qab yog siab;


(3) los xyuas kom meej muaj ntau haiv ntawm alloy tshuaj muaj pes tsawg leeg;


(4) kom paub tseeb ntawm cov khoom siv roj thev naus laus dua, txo tus nqi tsim khoom.


Qhov tsis zoo ntawm PCHM txoj kev yog txuag hluav taws xob tsawg. EBCHM thiab PCHM muaj nyob rau hauv kev muaj peev xwm muaj peev xwm tshem tawm HDI thiab LDI. Cov qub yog ntau tsim nyog rau smelting ntshiab titanium. Rau alloys, lub tom kawg yog qhov tsim nyog dua. Zoo li VAR txoj kev, ob txoj hauv kev saum toj no tuaj yeem ua tiav ntau txoj kev tsis siv neeg cov txheej txheem tswj, nrog rau cov txheej txheem cov txheej txheem (melting nrawm, faib qhov kub thiab txias thaum melting thiab solidification, kev hloov ntawm kev sib xyaw thaum melting, tshem tawm degree ntawm insoluble suav, thiab lwm yam) thiab zoo Cov.




4. Cov lauj kaub txias melting txoj kev (txoj kev CCM rau luv luv)


Lub sijhawm xyoo 1980, lub tuam txhab American ferrosilicon tsim cov txheej txheem inag smelting slageless thiab qhia CCM txheej txheem rau kev tsim khoom lag luam, uas tau siv los tsim cov titanium ingot thiab titanium precision castings. Xyoo tsis ntev los no, hauv qee lub tebchaws muaj kev lag luam tsim kho, CCM txuj ci tau pib nqis mus rau hauv kev lag luam ntau lawm, nrog qhov siab tshaj plaws ntawm cov ingot lm thiab ntev ntawm 2m, thiab nws txoj kev txhim kho tau zoo kawg li. Cov txheej txheem npliag CCM yog nqa tawm hauv cov hlau crucible tsim ua los ntawm cov dej txias roj arc-puab lossis tooj liab uas tsis muaj qhov sib nkag mus. Qhov loj tshaj plaws ntawm kev sib xyaw no yog qhov sib txawv nruab nrab ntawm ob lub block yog qhov sib nqus kom muaj zog, thiab lub zog sib zog tsim los ntawm cov khoom sib nqus ua rau cov tshuaj lom neeg muaj pes tsawg leeg thiab qhov kub thiab txias, yog li txhim kho cov khoom lag luam zoo. CCM txoj kev sib xyaw ua ke muaj cov yam ntxwv ntawm VAR hom thiab crucible induction melting ntawm cov ntaub ntawv refractory, uas tuaj yeem tau txais cov khoom zoo nrog cov qauv sib xyaw thiab tsis muaj kuab lom ntau ntau yam tsis muaj cov khoom siv refractory thiab tsis ua electrodes. Piv nrog VAR txoj kev, txoj kev CCM muaj qhov zoo ntawm cov cuab yeej siv qis thiab kev ua haujlwm yooj yim, tab sis tam sim no, lub tshuab no tseem nyob rau theem kev txhim kho.


5. Electroslag smelting (ESR)


ESR hloov hluav taws xob lub zog rau hauv hluav taws xob kub los ntawm kev sib tsoo ntawm cov xaim hluav taws xob thaum lub zog tam sim no dhau los ntawm kev siv hluav taws xob. Lub txim yog melted thiab kho kom zoo los ntawm lub zog kub tsim los ntawm slag tsis kam. ESR txoj kev siv cov khoom siv hluav taws xob uas siv tau rau electroslag smelting nyob rau hauv qhov tsis tseem ceeb slag (CaF2), uas tuaj yeem fused ncaj qha thiab muab pov rau hauv cov ntawv me me ntawm cov duab nrog cov khoom zoo zoo, thiab tsim nyog rau kev coj ua ncaj qha rau hauv cov txheej txheem tom ntej. Qhov zoo ntawm txoj cai no yog:


(1) kev ua tiav coaxiality ntawm ESR qhov cub tawg kom ntseeg tau tias rov ua dua zoo ntawm ingot casting nrog qhov zoo tshaj plaws;


(2) axial crystallization ntawm ingot, ntom thiab tsis sib thooj qauv;


(3) electrode cov kev ntsuas qhov system thiab melting tus nqi tswj kev tswj hwm nrog qhov muaj peev txheej siab;


(4) cov khoom siv yog yooj yim thiab yooj yim rau kev khiav lag luam. Qhov tsis zoo yog tias qhov ingot tsis tuaj yeem raug qias neeg los ntawm slag.

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